What's more, it's especially important to make sure your diet is well-planned when you're eating keto-style, because the foods you can choose from are limited. In addition to checking in with a dietitian if you're able, Stefanski recommends that you "talk to your doctor and make sure she or he is aware that you'll be starting a diet that completely changes how your body metabolizes energy." You might also want to check your most recent bloodwork levels for things such as cholesterol, vitamin D, and other indicators of health because these can change while on keto. That's because for some people, a prolonged keto diet can result in certain nutritional deficiencies or even high cholesterol. But most experts will tell you that the ketogenic diet is not a permanent lifestyle change (as could be the case for something like the 80/20 approach to eating or a Mediterranean eating style).
In one week my husband lost 1.5 kg because of Keto diet and recipes. Thank you for the insights and tips. I would like to have a complete recipe for meals everyday and hoping by subscribing I will receive try my mail. I will keep u posted. It takes 2 to tango. The one who wants to diet must be cooperative with the plan and execution while the other person who is preparing the food must be patient to the dieting person. Its not easy to change meals so patience is required
You’re transitioning. Your body is equipped to process a high intake of carbs and a lower intake of fat. Your body needs to create enzymes to be able to do this. In the transitional period, the brain may run low on energy which can lead to grogginess, nausea, and headaches. If you’re having a large problem with this, you can choose to reduce carb intake gradually.
You’re very welcome, Judy! I’m glad it’s helpful. If you are keto (as opposed to low carb), unfortunately peaches would not allow you to stay in ketosis. You can check my keto food list to help determine what is keto friendly. Of course, there are worse things than fresh fruit 🙂 but in the end our bodies still see the sugar. That being said, it doesn’t mean you sabotaged the whole day. Just pick up again – you got this!! (And for next time, try some fresh berries in moderation when you’re craving fruit.)

[…] Your 3 Day Keto Kickstart and Menu Plan – I Breathe… I’m … – I am starting your 3 day kick start menu today (again) and was wondering, how do you calculate the carbs in sugar free syrup … I am excited to try your version of the keto diet! My husband started this last year and lost a bunch of weight. I then joined him and lost a bunch of weight too … […]

Funny story, I didn’t mean to start the keto diet. My best friend has been doing it for a few months, and I was not really paying close attention to her journey. I assumed it was too restrictive for me, and I love food, so conversely hate “restrictive”. I’ve been lowering calories, eating more protein/vegetables, fewer carbs and working out. I feel great, but I’m not really losing weight, which is frustrating. But, being 44, i was beginning to accept it as part of my metabolic process. The funny thing is, one day I felt like total, deep-fried dog crap. It was right before going on vacation: body aches, dizziness, irritability, I was sure I caught the flu. IN SUMMER!! Awful. However, the next day I woke up, feeling mildly better, and a conversation with my bestie came back to me. Could this be keto flu???? I loaded up on electrolytes that day, WHAM it was gone. I went on vacation and just limited my carbs because I wanted to eat all the good stuff (fatty, hot cheesy, meaty scrumptiousness), but not get gluten bloat. I LOST WEIGHT. YEAAHHHH!!!!!! So I did some research and realized that keto was definitely for me because it really is all my favorite foods. I love to cook, so I had been creating clean, gluten free recipes for quite some time. So now I’m here with you because I loved the name of your blog, just about every recipe appeals to me, as does your writing style. So relatable. I just wanted to share how excited I am to be here, at ground zero of what is to me, a life changing experience. Starting a diet is usually done with grim determination, but today, I’ve never been more excited to start a diet! Looking forward to exploring this gem of a site!
So sorry to hear about that Marie! I have found that eliminating grains, especially corn and wheat makes a big difference for me and how my joints feel. If I start indulging, not only do I gain weight and get very bloated, but within a few days my tendonitis returns and my joints (especially my fingers and hips for some reason) start to really ache again. If you haven’t already cut out all grains, you might try experimenting with it for a couple of weeks to see if that gives you further relief!
Thank you! My inflammation seems to be all hormonne based from pregnancy. If i miss one cycle i get cysts & swollen joints. Taking Maca Root & going to start Magnesium to see if it helps with keeping regular. I find low carb just makes me feel better all round & hoping for weight loss by really keeping it to under 20g. It has to now become a lifestyle rather than just maintenance i think.

Great post! I’ve been following Maria Emmerich’s keto plan for a few months now. Ketosis is AMAZING! The energy, focus, and lack of hunger are what make this plan so easy to follow, and maintain long term. I would love love love for you to do 7 day meal plans. I love your recipies and implement them in my keto lifestyle already, but meal plans would ROCK! Great job.
The ketogenic diet achieved national media exposure in the US in October 1994, when NBC's Dateline television programme reported the case of Charlie Abrahams, son of Hollywood producer Jim Abrahams. The two-year-old suffered from epilepsy that had remained uncontrolled by mainstream and alternative therapies. Abrahams discovered a reference to the ketogenic diet in an epilepsy guide for parents and brought Charlie to John M. Freeman at Johns Hopkins Hospital, which had continued to offer the therapy. Under the diet, Charlie's epilepsy was rapidly controlled and his developmental progress resumed. This inspired Abrahams to create the Charlie Foundation to promote the diet and fund research.[10] A multicentre prospective study began in 1994, the results were presented to the American Epilepsy Society in 1996 and were published[17] in 1998. There followed an explosion of scientific interest in the diet. In 1997, Abrahams produced a TV movie, ...First Do No Harm, starring Meryl Streep, in which a young boy's intractable epilepsy is successfully treated by the ketogenic diet.[1]
Today is the 9 th day morning since I started 3 day kick start. Total of 4.6lb loss. 3 days ago I started to feel dizzy and sore throat( partially keto flue?), so I made beef bone broth and used lite salt all day yesterday and a lot of lemon in my tea and seems like it helped.last few days my husband has been loving the bacon and cream cheese pancake, creamy cauliflower on top of 10 minutes chile ( kind like a shepards pie?)and chocolate mousse for the dessert which is all considered no no for his diet plan.He has been carefully watching scale every day and he is still losing as much as his original packaged food plan. At this point he is still doing half and half and being skeptical but he can’t help himself to resist delicious and good looking food anymore!
People use a ketogenic diet most often to lose weight, but it can help manage certain medical conditions, like epilepsy, too. It also may help people with heart disease, certain brain diseases, and even acne, but there needs to be more research in those areas. Talk with your doctor first to find out if it’s safe for you to try a ketogenic diet, especially if you have type 1 diabetes.

If you’ve decided to move forward in trying the keto diet, you will want to stick to the parameters of the eating plan. Roughly 60 to 80 percent of your calories will come from fats. That means you’ll eat meats, fats, and oils, and a very limited amount of nonstarchy vegetables, she says. (This is different from a traditional low-carb diet, as even fewer carbs are allowed on the keto diet.)
After about two to seven days of following this eating routine, you go into something called ketosis, or the state your body enters when it doesn't have enough carbs for your cells to use for energy. Then it starts making ketones, or organic compounds that your bod then uses in place of those missing carbs—and oh, it also burns fat for more energy, says Beth Warren, R.D., founder of Beth Warren Nutrition and author of Living A Real Life With Real Food.
There are several types of the keto diet, but essentially, to achieve a state of ketosis, you have to severely reduce the amount of carbs you eat. (You can use this ketogenic calculator to create a custom food plan.) Data suggest the average American man over age 20 consumes 47.4 percent of his daily calories from carbs, and the average American woman over age 20 consumes 49.6 percent of her daily calories from carbs. (3) But in the classic ketogenic diet, which was originally used for the management of seizure disorders, 80 to 90 percent of calories come from fat, 5 to 15 percent come from protein, and 5 to 10 percent come from carbohydrates.
On average it takes most people about three days to get into ketosis.The sticks will confirm that ketones are being excreted through your urine. That’s all. They won’t change color at all for no ketones, then there is trace (light pink) and it goes up from there to dark purple. The darkness of the stick doesn’t matter. As long as you are showing even trace amounts, then you are in ketosis and good to go. In fact, if you are showing really dark on the stick, you may be dehydrated and need to drink more water (see #4.)
Lots of apps and website offer keto diet challenges—basically, a blueprint for the keto diet with a fixed starting and ending point (they typically last for a week to a month, though some may be longer). Speaking of apps, plenty of keto-centric ones are right at your fingertips (a.k.a., your smartphone), like the KetoDiet app, which can help you calculate your macros and track your keto diet effectively.
For endurance athletes, the transition to a ketogenic diet may reduce recovery time after training, but for casual exercisers, the transition to the ketogenic diet may make sticking with your fitness routine a challenge at first. (10) If you feel your energy levels drop too much when starting the ketogenic diet, slow down your reduction of carbohydrates, making sure to do it over time rather than all at once.
Thank you! Yea, no bread/pasta for me, by all accounts I was eating a (what I thought and what everyone would tell me, even a dietician I went to!) ‘healthy’ diet of whole grains, rice, fruit, vegetables, low fat, etc. and couldn’t understand why I was steadily gaining weight. That’s what led me here, as I was getting so frustrated and the more I read up on low carb/ketosis and how the body processes even conventionally healthy foods, it made sense to me, but I don’t think I can give up oatmeal and fruit forever! So I will definitely just make sure I only eat those in small amounts, but that is much farther down the road anyway.. I’m on to Week 1 and I’ll post an update at the end of the week. Thanks again!
Although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain how the ketogenic diet works, it remains a mystery. Disproven hypotheses include systemic acidosis (high levels of acid in the blood), electrolyte changes and hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose).[18] Although many biochemical changes are known to occur in the brain of a patient on the ketogenic diet, it is not known which of these has an anticonvulsant effect. The lack of understanding in this area is similar to the situation with many anticonvulsant drugs.[55]
All I can say is WOW! I am a week in on this Keto way of eating and came across this simple recipe. Gotta admit, I didn’t think I would like it…I LOVE IT! So easy to make…took me 20 minutes total! It was light, moist and delicious. I used one small loaf pan, doubled the ingredients and made the regular one and the cheese mix in. Can’t wait to share the rest with my co-workers…we are doing this together. Will be back to check for other recipes. Thank you!

I have been doing keto the last 4 days and haven’t lost a pound. I want the success like others are having their first week by dropping 2-6 or more pounds! I want my own success story. After thanksgiving pics I saw myself and said to myself enough is enough!! Get back to the college athletic body type you once were. I am using the myfitnesspal app to help track my carbs.

Everyone has to find their nutritional sweet spot for producing enough ketones and staying in ketosis, but “the core principle of the diet is to keep carbohydrate intake low enough, so your body continues producing ketones at elevated levels,” says Volek. “Your body adapts to this alternative fuel and becomes very efficient at breaking down and burning fat.”

Leftovers will be another thing we will take into consideration. Not only is it easier on you, but why put yourself through the hassle to cook the same food more than once? Breakfast is something I normally do leftover style, where I don’t have to worry about it in the morning and I certainly don’t have to stress about it. Grab some food out the fridge, pre-made for me, and head out the door. It doesn’t get much easier than that, does it?

These types of back-and-forth weight fluctuations can contribute to disordered eating, Kizer says, or can worsen an already unhealthy relationship with food. “I think this diet appeals to people who have issues with portion control and with binge eating,” she says. "And in many cases, what they really need is a lifestyle coach or a professional counselor to help them get to the bottom of those issues."


There are many cheese free options Pam, you’ll have to search out recipes without cheese and put a weekly plan together for yourself. Going off plan a few times a week will keep you from losing weight for sure so you’ll need to find a way that works for you to stick to it long enough to reach your goals. A search on Pinterest for dairy free low carb recipes should net a large list of possibilities for you.
Let me know if you have questions on the ingredients and I’ll help you decipher them – I also try to link to examples of the harder to find ingredients on amazon so people can see a picture and get a description of what it is to help find them in the stores. I can’t imagine that you won’t see amazing results combining crossfit with lchf – can’t wait to hear how you do on the plans!!! Keep us posted and welcome to IBIH!
Still, it can be hard to get enough fat when you first start this diet. Butter, nuts, coconut and olive oils, and fatty cuts of meat are all on the menu. However, don't go overboard with polyunsaturated fats like soybean, corn, or sunflower oil. Keto dieters who increase their intake of those fats often end up with gastrointestinal distress that causes them to jump ship.
It’s important to remember that the goal of any dietary change is to promote a healthy lifestyle, so make sure to select a meal plan you can envision yourself following long term. If you know you will not be able to comply with such stringent carbohydrate restrictions for years to come, the ketogenic diet is most likely not the right choice for you.
In addition to burning fat reserves and super charging weight loss, ketosis produces a clean burning metabolic fuel that has many benefits. Ketones lower production of reactive oxygen species (ROS),1 enhance mitochondrial biogenesis,2 3 and induce positive epigenetic expression.4 Because of its neurological benefits, I went on a Keto Diet in 2014, and it has been helpful in moderating my MS symptoms.
Blanket statement: It’s always best to check with your doctor before starting on this regimen. With that said, “the keto diet isn’t recommended for those with liver or kidney disease, or someone with a medical condition, such as a gastrointestinal issue, who can’t metabolize high amounts of dietary fat,” says Sarah Jadin, a Los-Angeles based registered dietitian and founder of Keto Consulting, LLC. If you’ve had your gallbladder removed, the keto diet may be a no-go. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and people with certain rare genetic disorders shouldn’t try this diet.
Patty, Atkins puts in suggestions, like their own products, which are processed foods. The main plan is great and you can easily do it without processed foods! They emphasize fresh veggies and whole fat foods. Easy to use both these plans in conjunction. It’s what I’m doing. I eat almost all organic, whole foods. I’m going to try this ketogenic kick to see if I can break my stall.
I just made this keto bread, and it is amazing! It’s better than most bread I’ve tasted! I made mine with bacon, American cheese, Brie, and Camembert (because I wanted to be extra). If you use bacon, cook it to how you normally like it in a seperate pan, as the bacon doesn’t cook much extra while baking. I think I used a little too much butter, but, oh boy, was it nice and moist!
The original therapeutic diet for paediatric epilepsy provides just enough protein for body growth and repair, and sufficient calories[Note 1] to maintain the correct weight for age and height. The classic therapeutic ketogenic diet was developed for treatment of paediatric epilepsy in the 1920s and was widely used into the next decade, but its popularity waned with the introduction of effective anticonvulsant medications. This classic ketogenic diet contains a 4:1 ratio by weight of fat to combined protein and carbohydrate. This is achieved by excluding high-carbohydrate foods such as starchy fruits and vegetables, bread, pasta, grains and sugar, while increasing the consumption of foods high in fat such as nuts, cream, and butter.[1] Most dietary fat is made of molecules called long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). However, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)—made from fatty acids with shorter carbon chains than LCTs—are more ketogenic. A variant of the classic diet known as the MCT ketogenic diet uses a form of coconut oil, which is rich in MCTs, to provide around half the calories. As less overall fat is needed in this variant of the diet, a greater proportion of carbohydrate and protein can be consumed, allowing a greater variety of food choices.[4][5]
Hi, I know this is an old post but I did a very strict keto based diet back in May and lost 30 pounds in 2 months which was great, now I’m trying to keep this pounds off, especially after the holidays. I came across your site a while back and remembered an email that a friend sent me. The menu here is great but I wanted to know if there was an alternate to the cream cheese pancakes (not a big pancake fan). Thank you!!!

Hi! I’m contemplating taking on the Keto lifestyle change, but am concerned that preparing 1 meal for me and then a different meal for my DH and finicky 13yo DD will be an anchor around my neck. I already dislike cooking and my crew is not going to cooperate and join me in this journey. Any words of wisdom or is this going to be one of those “put on your big girl panties, Shawn, and deal with it” kind of situations. I just see myself being sabotaged from day one. Anyone else in a similar situation? How did you go about it?


A short-lived increase in seizure frequency may occur during illness or if ketone levels fluctuate. The diet may be modified if seizure frequency remains high, or the child is losing weight.[18] Loss of seizure-control may come from unexpected sources. Even "sugar-free" food can contain carbohydrates such as maltodextrin, sorbitol, starch and fructose. The sorbitol content of suntan lotion and other skincare products may be high enough for some to be absorbed through the skin and thus negate ketosis.[30]
The good news is that snacks are totally allowed (and I're not just talking about carrot sticks.) There are plenty of packaged options out there designed for keto fans. FATBAR is one of them. These snack bars have 200 calories, 16 grams of fat, and four grams of net carbs. They're also plant-based and are made with almond or cashew butter, cocoa butter, coconut, pea protein, sunflower seeds, and chia seeds.
Hi I’m new to Keto. I have been reading about it, and understanding what to eat and what not to eat. My problem is I’m not sure if I’m doing it correctly. I’m constantly hungry whereas information reads that I will never be hungry. I use fats as required along with topping up with vegetables in my meals yet this does not fill me up. I haven’t experienced the Keto flu and I’ve even put on weight! I have been doing this for about 3 weeks now. Any ideas where I am going wrong.
Thank you soooo much for this. I have been a big fan of your recipes for a few months-delicious! I was floundering on my low carb for a while and this holiday season was the first in years that I just ate everything…whatever I wanted. I was left feeling huge, bloated, uncomfortable in my own skin. I had forgotten what I loved about low carb, that it wasn’t complicated and I did get to eat what I loved. Thank you again for reminding that it can be easy and delicious.
The Metabolic Cooking is a fantastic, well organised meal plan that comes with more than 250 quick & easy fat torching recipes, structured guidelines, grocery lists, food logs and additional tips and tricks to drop off that stubborn fat and get into the best shape of your life. If you want better tasting recipes for your diet, made with spices and ingredients that will boost your metabolism and torch the fat, I really recommend grabbing a copy of “The Metabolic Cooking” created by my Canadian friends Dave Ruel and Karine Losier! Metabolic Cooking recipes have all been designed with high Metabolic Thermo Charge ingredients to boost your metabolism and burn more calories everyday.
Many ketogenic dieters also swear by MCT oil. (MCT simply stands for medium chain triglycerides.) MCT's energy-sustaining powers can be explained as follows: When MCT oil is metabolized in the body, it behaves more like a carbohydrate than a fat. Unlike other fats, MCT oil does not go through the lymphatic system. Instead, it is transported directly to the liver where it is metabolized so it releases energy like a carbohydrate and creates lots of ketones (which can be used for fuel) in the process.
All I can say is WOW! I am a week in on this Keto way of eating and came across this simple recipe. Gotta admit, I didn’t think I would like it…I LOVE IT! So easy to make…took me 20 minutes total! It was light, moist and delicious. I used one small loaf pan, doubled the ingredients and made the regular one and the cheese mix in. Can’t wait to share the rest with my co-workers…we are doing this together. Will be back to check for other recipes. Thank you!
Because the main tenet of the keto diet is counting and cutting carbs — a commonly used way to control blood sugar — this eating approach has become increasingly popular among people with type 2 diabetes who are looking to lower their A1C, which is the two- to three-month average measurement of blood sugar levels. Indeed, research suggests this diet may lead to fast weight loss and potentially lower blood sugar for people with the disease. (13)
Maybe Im missing it cause im a total idiot, but is there a shopping list for this particular kickstart? I know all the other keto plans you posted come with the grocery list but i must be missing this one? Also do I have to do the kick start or I can jump right into week one? Which would you suggest kick start and than week one? I want maximum results lol
the biggest challenge most people have is sticking that first week at less than 20 net carbs but this is crucial not only to start losing but to keep losing. Most people don’t really start to notice weight loss till a good week in even then. If you want to jump start you can try a three day fast but then stick to that 20 net carbs and like was stated, know the nutrition facts of what you are eating. Onions for instance have quite a bit of sugar/net carbs. Even if it takes a bit for your body to rev up it definitely will as long as you stick to the carb numbers and fat ratio of 40% total calories
If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin.
My daughter and I started low carb dieting/no flour,no sugar 6weeks ago. During that time I lost a total of 4 lbs. It was so frustrating because it felt like I should be losing more. So, in our search to figure out what we were doing wrong we found this site. We started with the 3 day plan!!! It has been wonderful. Every single recipe you provide has been absolutely Delicious. I have felt the most satisfied on your plan and as of day #2 I have already lost 6 lbs. 6!!! I worked 6 weeks just to lose 4!!!
Patty, Atkins puts in suggestions, like their own products, which are processed foods. The main plan is great and you can easily do it without processed foods! They emphasize fresh veggies and whole fat foods. Easy to use both these plans in conjunction. It’s what I’m doing. I eat almost all organic, whole foods. I’m going to try this ketogenic kick to see if I can break my stall.
Chasing blood Ketones instead of focusing on hormone signals: "The higher the number means you have more Ketones circulating in your bloodstream, but that does not mean that you are better at burning fat for fuel," Mavridis points out. "You must be in nutritional Ketosis, which is described as being between 1.5 - 3.0 mol/L on the blood Ketone meter. You will know once you are fat-adapted from hormonal signals, and not from higher Ketones on the blood meter," she adds.
Normal dietary fat contains mostly long-chain triglycerides (LCT). Medium-chain triglycerides are more ketogenic than LCTs because they generate more ketones per unit of energy when metabolised. Their use allows for a diet with a lower proportion of fat and a greater proportion of protein and carbohydrate,[3] leading to more food choices and larger portion sizes.[4] The original MCT diet developed by Peter Huttenlocher in the 1970s derived 60% of its calories from MCT oil.[15] Consuming that quantity of MCT oil caused abdominal cramps, diarrhoea and vomiting in some children. A figure of 45% is regarded as a balance between achieving good ketosis and minimising gastrointestinal complaints. The classical and modified MCT ketogenic diets are equally effective and differences in tolerability are not statistically significant.[9] The MCT diet is less popular in the United States; MCT oil is more expensive than other dietary fats and is not covered by insurance companies.[3]
We know the keto diet restricts carbohydrates, but what can you eat? Actually carbohydrates are allowed, but in very small amounts — less than 30 grams per day (for perspective, a medium apple contains about 25 grams of carbs). The diet focuses on meats, eggs, cheese, fish, nuts, butters, oil, heavy cream, mayonnaise and low-carb vegetables such as kale and broccoli. 
Forget the heavy casserole recipes and try this low-carb pot pie tonight! Nothing says comfort food like a chicken pot pie. This low-carb pot pie recipe skips the traditional gluten-filled dough of chicken pot pies and replaces it with cauliflower for a more low-carb option. I simply suggest switching out the cornstarch with arrowroot or tapioca starch.
Do you by chance have a shopping list for this 3 day beginning plan? I am a beginner and am so overwhelmed with information. The best part about your plans is they don’t require a tone of ingredients for 1 recipe. I don’t like when I have to but 15 things for 1 meal. I also love how you have something for breakfast and then can use it again for lunch (day 1 isn’t an example). Thank you so much for taking the time to put these together. Also, for all the information you provided.
Hi Tammy, I still have to try the muffin tin method to ive you a better response. Why don’t you make the recipe using exact ingredients for one bread multiplied x 9-10 and divide between 12 muffin tin slots? I think this will work better. This way we are not changing the amount of eggs. If you use less eggs, the bread will be more dry, since it is gluten-free.

Symptoms of the keto flu include headache, fatigue, dizziness, sleep problems, heart palpitations, cramps, and diarrhea. These side effects usually lessen and eventually resolve in about two weeks. (2) But to lessen the effects of any discomfort, simply consider slowly transitioning onto a ketogenic diet rather than rushing to change your eating habits. By slowly lowering your carbohydrate intake, while gradually increasing your intake of dietary fat over time, you can transition with less of a negative impact and potentially prevent the keto flu.
You’ll need to eat plenty of avocado, coconut, olive oil, beef, chicken, low starch veggies, etc. Strict Paleo avoids both dairy and soy products – I’d start there and eliminate some of the carbs they allow and you should find plenty of recipes you can use for ketosis. Also try the Whole 30 which isn’t keto but eliminates dairy, soy and a few other common allergens and I lose weight on it every time even when I’m not in ketosis. Hope that helps and that you find something that works for you!
In its 2016 report “Healthy Eating Guidelines & Weight Loss Advice,” the Public Health Collaboration, a U.K. nonprofit, evaluated evidence on low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets. (The Keto diet falls under the LCHF umbrella.) Among 53 randomized clinical trials comparing LCHF diets to calorie-counting, low-fat diets, a majority of studies showed greater weight loss for the Keto-type diets, along with more beneficial health outcomes. The collaboration recommends weight-loss guidelines that include a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet of real (rather than processed) foods as an acceptable, effective and safe approach.
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